The Animals’ Top Forty: the forty most important books (including
several shorter works) in the history of animal advocacy

Norm Phelps


Of necessity, a list of this sort is subjective, and this one should be regarded
as suggestive rather than definitive. I am not trying to create a canon, but
rather to stimulate inquiry into the history of animal advocacy.

By “important,” I mean that the work made an original or influential
contribution to the development of a compassionate and just paradigm for our
relationships with  nonhuman animals or that it was influential in persuading
people to live by that paradigm—or both. Books are listed in rough
chronological order rather than in order of supposed importance.


1.
The Hebrew Scriptures. Known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as
the Old Testament, the Hebrew Scriptures report all three sides of the ancient
Jewish dialogue about the moral status of animals. First, they record the
original belief that animals, like plants and minerals, are resources that are
here for us to use and that they fall outside our moral universe. Genesis 9:1-3,
for example gives permission to kill animals for food while having no regard
for the fear and suffering that we inflict. And numerous passages command
animal sacrifice or describe it approvingly, including Exodus 29:15-18 and
Leviticus 8:22-28. Next, they report the challenge to this view that was issued
by the Latter Prophets and other reformers from roughly the eighth through the
fifth centuries BCE. Genesis 1:29-31 commands not just a vegetarian, but a
vegan diet. The prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea, Amos, and Micah explicitly
condemn animal sacrifice and by implication meat eating, since Jews were
only permitted to eat animal flesh so long as sacrifices continued to be offered
at the Temple (a rule that was abandoned in 70 CE when the Romans
destroyed the Temple bringing sacrifice to a permanent end). See, for example,
Isaiah 1:11-17 and Jeremiah 7:21-23 (Note that the New International Version,
currently the best-selling Bible in the English speaking world, mistranslates the
latter passage in accordance with the prejudices of its fundamentalist,
evangelical translators. The original Hebrew says, and all other English
translations that I am familiar with follow suit, “I did not speak to your fathers,
or command them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
concerning burnt offerings and sacrifices.” The NIV says “I did not
just speak
to your fathers, or command them in the day that I brought them out of the land
of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings and sacrifices.” (italics added) The
arbitrary insertion of the word “just” completely changes the meaning of the
sentence.) Sacrifice is also condemned in Hosea 6:6 (a passage which Jesus
quoted with approval, see Matthew 9:13 and 12:7), Hosea 8:11-13, Amos 5:21-
25, and Micah 6:6-8. Finally, the Hebrew Scriptures report the compromise
between these two points of view that became the normative view for all of
Judaism. This teaching, which the ancient rabbis who created the Talmud
named
tsar ba’ale hayyim ("the suffering of living beings"), and which I call
the Biblical Compromise, held that we may exploit and slaughter animals for
what are considered important human purposes, such as food, fabric, and
religious sacrifice, but that we must not inflict upon them any more suffering
than is essential to the purpose for which we are using them. Expressions of
the Compromise are found numerous places in the Hebrew Scriptures, notably
Deuteronomy 25:4, Exodus 23:12, and Proverbs 12:10. Saint Paul specifically
rejected the Biblical Compromise (I Cor. 9:9-14), and adopted the Greek
view—originally formulated by Aristotle and the Stoics—that we have no
moral duties to animals. Catholic Christianity followed him, and there was no
significant animal advocacy in Christian Europe from the fourth century CE
until the Protestant Reformation more than a thousand years later. When the
founders of Protestantism began looking directly into the Bible for their
spiritual guidance, rather than to Church theologians like St. Augustine and St.
Thomas Aquinas, they found, and began to teach, the Biblical Compromise.
Soon this teaching, which became known as “animal welfare,” had spread
throughout Europe and is now the normative ethical standard for human
treatment of animals throughout most of the world.

2.
The Akaranga Sutra. A principal Jain Scripture (also spelled Acharanga
Sutra or Acaranga Sutra). In its present written form, it probably dates from
around the fifth century CE, but it reflects the teachings—accurately, on the
available evidence—of the Jain founder Lord Vardamana Mahavira, who lived
from 599 to 527 BCE. The Akaranga Sutra reports the earliest known
expression of the Indian teaching of ahimsa (nonviolence) as the foundation of
ethical behavior, and in it Mahavira explicitly applies that principle to our
treatment of nonhuman animals. “As it would be for you, so it is for those
whom you intend to kill. As it would be for you, so it is for those whom you
intend to tyrannize over. As it would be for you, so it is for those whom you
intend to punish, to torment, to drive away. The righteous person who lives up
to these sentiments neither kills nor causes others to kill living beings.” (I:5:5:
4) “Every kind of living being should not be killed, nor treated with violence,
nor abused, nor driven away.” (I:4:2:5) To this day, Jainism is the most
universally and consistently vegetarian religion in the world.

3.
The Lankavatara Sutra. A younger contemporary (and neighbor) of Lord
Mahavira, the Buddha adopted the older teacher's doctrine of a single ethical
standard based on ahimsa governing our relationship to all sentient beings.
Although a number of Buddhist sutras reflect the Buddha’s teachings on
ethical vegetarianism and nonviolence toward animals, these principles find
their most extensive and straightforward expression in The Lankavatara Sutra,
a Mahayana Scripture that has come down to us in a Chinese translation (from
the original Sanskrit) that dates from about the fourth century CE. Included is
this unequivocal condemnation of meat-eating by the Buddha:  “I have not
allowed meat eating, I do not allow it, and I shall not allow it.” (Chapter 8,
which is devoted to meat eating and our relationship to animals) Other
Buddhist sutras portray the Buddha as condemning all forms of animal
exploitation, except for the use of animals in labor and transportation.

4.
The Tirukural. A beloved Hindu Scripture written in the Tamil language of
southern India around the third century BCE that teaches an ethic of loving
your neighbor as yourself and treating others as you would want them to treat
you. Applying this teaching to humans and animals alike, an entire chapter is
devoted to condemnations of meat eating, including the following: “When a
man realizes that meat is the butchered flesh of another creature, he must
abstain from eating it.” (257) And, “If you ask, ‘What is kindness and what is
cruelty?’, it is killing and not killing. Therefore, eating meat is never
virtuous.”  (254)

5. “The Teachings of Pythagoras”. A section of Book XV of the long narrative
poem Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BCE – 17 CE). Pythagoras
of Samos (fl. c. 530 BCE) was a mathematician, musicologist, philosopher,
and religious visionary who taught nonviolence and universal compassion
toward humans and animals alike. He reportedly wrote several books, but they
have not survived. His Pythagorean Society survived in one form or another
for nearly a millennium and was influential throughout that time in
philosophical circles, but never exercised a broader influence on Classical
society in general. It was Pythagoras who introduced into the Classical world
ideas of not exploiting and slaughtering animals for human benefit and
maintaining a compassionate vegetarian diet. While Ovid’s statements of the
teachings do not reflect the actual words of Pythagoras, they do, from all the
available evidence, appear to accurately represent the main outlines of the
Master’s doctrines. Ovid has Pythagoras lament, “Alas, what wickedness to
swallow flesh into our own flesh, to fatten our greedy bodies by cramming in
other bodies, to have one living creature fed by the death of another.”

6. “On the Eating of Animal Flesh”. Two essays, or more precisely the
surviving fragments of two essays, by the Greco-Roman essayist and
biographer Plutarch (c. 45 – c. 125 CE) bear this title. Both are included in the
collection of Plutarch’s essays known as the
Moralia. Generally referred to by
their Latin title,
De Esu Carnium, despite being written in Greek, they are
defenses of Pythagoras’ condemnation of meat eating. Remarkable for
containing many of the arguments based on animal sentience, self-awareness,
and intelligence that are used to defend animal rights today, “On the Eating of
Animal Flesh” will strike the modern reader as up-to-date and familiar. In what
is perhaps the best-known quotation from these two essays, Plutarch tells us
that “For the sake of a little meat, we deprive them of sun, of light, of the
duration of life to which they are entitled by birth and being.” (
Moralia, 994)

7.
On Abstinence from Animal Food. An open letter from Porphyry (234-305
CE), the foremost student of the Neo-Platonist philosopher Plotinus, to a
Roman Senator named Castricius Firmus. A former disciple of Plotinus,
Firmus had resumed eating meat upon his conversion to Christianity. Porphyry
was trying, apparently unsuccessfully, to convince him that killing animals for
their flesh was cruel and immoral by arguing that animals are sentient and
rational, and thereby entitled to just treatment. Thus, one of the last battles
between Classical paganism and Christianity was fought over the issue of
ethical vegetarianism.

8.
The Countryman’s Companion by Thomas Tryon (1634-1703). Tryon was
a self-educated farmer and tradesman who wrote numerous books on
philosophy and ethics. A disciple of the Christian mystic Jacob Boehme,
Tryon was perhaps the first person in the West since Porphyry to advocate
showing animals the same ethical regard we show other human beings. In
The
Countryman’s Companion
, he coined the term “animal rights” when he had a
chicken speak these lines: “But tell us, O Man! We pray you tell us what
injuries we have committed to forfeit? What law have we broken or what
cause given you, whereby you can pretend [claim] a right to invade and
violate our part, and our natural rights, and to assault and destroy us, as if we
were the aggressors, and no better than thieves, robbers, and murderers, fit to
be extirpated out of the creation?”

9.
The Duty of Mercy and the Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals by Rev. Dr.
Humphrey Primatt. Published in 1776,
The Duty of Mercy was the first book
to introduce the Biblical Compromise (See above, item 1.) to the modern
world in some detail, rather than simply a brief statement that we should show
kindness to the animals that we exploit and slaughter. Based on sermons
delivered by Rev. Primatt and heavily salted with Biblical citations, it teaches
both elements of the Compromise: that we have a God-given right to use
animals for food, fabric, and other purposes, and that we must spare them any
suffering that is not inherent in the use to which we are putting them. It
justified the killing of animals for human benefit by claiming that animals live
in an eternal present and have no sense of the future. Therefore, they do not
fear death and lose nothing when they die because they have no anticipation of
future joys. Hence, while death harms a human being, it does no harm to an
animal. This idea, which was picked up by Jeremy Bentham, Arthur
Schopenhauer, and others, is to this day the rationale relied upon by most
animal welfarists to justify slaughter.  Another Anglican priest, Rev. Arthur
Broome, was inspired by
The Duty of Mercy to found the Royal Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1824.

10.
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy
Bentham. This is the book that introduced to the world the utilitarian notion
that good and evil are functions of pleasure and pain and that ethics consists in
actions that result in the greatest good (i.e. the most pleasure and the least
pain) for the greatest number. Basing his ethics on sentience, Bentham argued
that the pleasure and pain of all sentient beings, human and nonhuman alike,
are of equal moral importance. This was the first call since antiquity for the
equal application of the same moral principle to our treatment of both human
beings and nonhuman animals. Although Bentham limited his comments on
animals to a footnote (Chapter XVII, Section IV), suggesting that perhaps he
did not really—in his heart of hearts, regardless of what his head might tell
him—believe animals to be as  important as human beings, that footnote
played a pivotal role in the creation of the modern animal rights movement
when Bentham’s argument was taken up by Peter Singer. In his footnote,
Bentham refuted the argument of Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas that we
owe moral duties only to “rational” beings, i.e., beings capable of abstract
thought. “[T]he question is not,” according to Bentham, “Can they
reason?
nor, Can they
talk? but, Can they suffer?” (emphases in original) But Bentham
agreed with Humphrey Primatt that animals have no sense of the future, and
therefore, we can slaughter them painlessly with a clear conscience. “If the
being eaten were all, there is very good reason why we should be suffered
[allowed] to eat such of them as we like to eat: we are the better for it, and
they are never the worse. They have none of those long-protracted
anticipations of future misery which we have.”

11.
A New System of Vegetable Cookery by Martha Brotherton. Published in
1812, this is believed to have been the first vegetarian cookbook. Martha
Brotherton was a leading figure in the Bible Christian Church, founded around
1809 by William Cowherd in Salford, UK. Cowherd required Church members
to be vegetarian out of compassion for animals and as a way to achieve
physical, mental, and spiritual health. Famous for providing free vegetarian
meals to the poor, the Bible Christian Church was the first organization in
Europe since the demise of the Pythagorean Society fourteen-hundred years
earlier to require a vegetarian diet at least in part from concern for animals. In
1847, Martha Brotherton’s husband, Joseph, by then the leader of the Bible
Christian Church, was instrumental in the formation of the Vegetarian Society
in London.

12.
A Vindication of Natural Diet by Percy Shelley. Best known as a poet and
leading voice of the Romantic movement in English literature, Percy Shelley
was also a social reformer who campaigned for the rights of the poor and
working people not as a matter of charity, but as a question of social justice.
An advocate for unions, socialism, and animals’ right not to be exploited and
slaughtered for our benefit, Shelley was among the first important
spokespersons in the modern era to regard our treatment of animals as a
progressive political issue on a par with our treatment of other human beings.
A Vindication of Natural Diet is an extended version of a long footnote that
Shelley appended to the narrative poem
Queen Mab, published in 1813, which
recounts his vision of a future Utopia. Shelley regarded the slaughter of
animals for food as the root crime of the human race and the ultimate cause of
all of our other crimes and sorrows. In
Vindication, he speaks of Prometheus
as a criminal who brought evil into the world by giving humans fire with which
they could make animal flesh edible by cooking it, thus bringing about the
slaughter of animals for food. A vegetarian diet, with the attendant end to the
slaughter of animals, would, Shelley believed, inevitably lead to the end of
crime, poverty, war, capitalism, and all forms of social injustice.

13.
Moral Inquiries into the Situation of Man and of Brutes by Lewis
Gompertz (1779-1865). In an era when animal advocacy was synonymous with
the animal welfarism learned from the Hebrew Scriptures and taught by
Protestant clergy, Lewis Gompertz was a vegan who opposed all forms of
animal exploitation, including the use of animals for labor and transportation.
He campaigned against hunting at a time when many of the leading animal
welfare advocates, such as Richard Martin and T. Fowell Buxton, were avid
hunters, and he refused to ride in vehicles drawn by animals. In one of the
most shameful episodes in the history of the RSPCA, Gompertz was dismissed
from its leadership because he was not a Christian (He was Jewish.) and
because he practiced and promoted a “Pythagorean” (vegetarian or vegan)
diet. Lewis Gompertz can rightly be considered the first modern animal rights
advocate and
Moral Inquiries, published in 1824, the first modern book to
teach animal rights.

14. “The Rights of Man and the Claims of Brutes” by Frances Power Cobbe
(1822-1904). In 1863, while taking the waters in Aix-en-Provence for a broken
ankle that was slow to heal, Cobbe—a prominent Anglo-Irish social reformer—
learned of the experiments of French vivisector Claude Bernard on
unanesthetized animals in Paris. Outraged, she published an article called “The
Rights of Man and the Claims of Brutes” in the popular
Fraser’s Magazine
for Town and Country
. Cobbe went on to create the anti-vivisection
movement that dominated animal advocacy during the second half of the
nineteenth century. The movement failed, but it did much to raise public
consciousness concerning the suffering of animals and pave the way for the
modern animal rights movement. Cobbe herself was an advocate of the
Biblical Compromise (See above, item 1) who opposed vegetarianism on the
grounds that it was contrary to the will of God as expressed in the Bible.

15.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and in Animals by Charles
Darwin (1809-1882). Published in 1872,
The Expression of the Emotions
carries forward and elaborates on a theme laid out in Darwin’s earlier—and
better known—
The Descent of Man, namely that the continuity of
development which characterizes evolution by natural selection precludes the
existence of a “great divide” between humans and animals. Nonhuman animals
have rich interior lives characterized by many of the same emotions
experienced by human beings. There may be differences in degree, but there
are no differences in kind between our mental and emotional lives and those of
other animals. Darwin put on a firm scientific foundation, grounded in decades
of rigorous empirical observation and the uncompromising application of
evolutionary theory, the claim that animals are sentient beings capable of
thought and feeling. For reasons that can only be described as speciesist bias,
Darwin’s fellow scientists ignored this aspect of his work, even as they were
making his theory of evolution by natural selection scientific orthodoxy.
Darwin himself shied away from many of the moral implications of his
findings; he was not a vegetarian, and although he was troubled by vivisection,
he continued to support it as essential to the progress of science.

16.
Black Beauty by Anna Sewell (1820-1878). Published in 1877, just months
before its author died, Black Beauty has long been treated as a children’s
book, as a way to dismiss its scathing critique of our treatment of domestic
animals as a mere fairly tale, not worthy of consideration by grown-ups. But
Black Beauty was written for adults as a protest against the mistreatment of
horses, and was described by George Angell (1823-1909), founder of the
Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as “the
Uncle
Tom’s Cabin
of the horse.” Angell published the first American edition and
sent 216,000 copies, at his own expense, to legislators, governors, editors, and
other public figures. In the short term, the attempt to infantilize concern for
animals by relegating
Black Beauty and similar books to the children’s
bookshelves was successful. Adults ignored it, and it never rallied public
opinion on behalf of animals they way that
Uncle Tom’s Cabin rallied opinion
on behalf of slaves. But for almost a century, it was read by nearly every child
in the English speaking world, and Sewell’s “autobiography of a horse”
planted in their minds the idea that animals are feeling, thinking beings, not all
that different from us.
Black Beauty also inspired an entire genre of books for
children and adolescents, popular from the late 19th century through the mid-
20th, that portrayed animals, principally dogs and horses, as in some sense
persons in their own right, preparing the ground for the 20th century animal
welfare movement.

17. “The First Step” by Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After completing his second
masterpiece
Anna Karenina in 1877, Tolstoy began a spiritual search that led
him—by way of Hindu and Buddhist teachings on ahimsa—to a doctrine of
Christian nonviolence based on the teachings of Jesus in the Sermon on the
Mount (Matthew 5-7). Written in 1892, “The First Step” applies these
teachings directly to animals by calling for a vegetarian diet that does not
depend on violence and killing. Tolstoy’s claim that a vegetarian diet was “the
first step” toward a moral life, which is to say a life of nonviolence, influenced
the views of Mohandas Gandhi, with whom Tolstoy corresponded toward the
end of his life.

18.
Animals’ Rights Considered in Relation to Social Progress by Henry Salt
(1851-1939). Born in India but raised and educated in England, Henry Salt
taught a philosophy of ahimsa toward both human beings and animals that he
called “Humanitarianism.” Gandhi credited Salt’s essay “A Moral Plea for
Vegetarianism” with convincing him that a vegetarian diet was the necessary
foundation of a moral life.
Animals’ Rights, published in 1892, introduced
many of the arguments used by animal advocates today, and reading it, one is
struck by how contemporary Henry Salt’s ideas sound. Along with Lewis
Gompertz, Anna Kingsford, Annie Besant, Gandhi, and Donald Watson, Salt
was one of the most important pioneers of animal rights prior to the
Publication of
Animals, Men, and Morals in 1971 (see below, item 23).

19.
Bambi: both the 1923 book by Austrian novelist Felix Salten (1869-1945)
(
Bambi: ein Leben im Walde; Bambi: a Life in the Forest) and the 1942
movie by Walt Disney Studios. Although the novel is more pessimistic in tone
than the movie, both present animals living in the wild as sentient beings who
experience suffering and joy, who are terrorized and slaughtered in their homes
by hunters, and who live at the mercy of catastrophes like forest fires. From
the release of the movie down to the present,
Bambi has been fiercely
condemned by pro-hunting groups, and “Bambi lover” has long been a favorite
insult of animal abusers, suggesting that the story struck a nerve and was seen
as a credible threat to hunting. Generations of children around the world grew
up reading the book and watching the movie, both of which played an indirect,
but nonetheless important, role in the growth of the humane and anti-hunting
movements.

20. “The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism.” A short talk delivered by Mohandas
K. Gandhi (1869-1948) to the London Vegetarian Society in 1931. In it,
Gandhi makes three primary points: 1) Vegetarianism is fundamentally a moral
issue because of the imprisonment and slaughter of animals, rather than
primarily a matter concerning human health. 2) People who adopt a vegetarian
diet for their own health are more likely to backslide than people whose adopt
a vegetarian diet for moral reasons. And 3) Even when faced with personal
inconvenience or concerns about health, vegetarians should not relapse and eat
meat because to do so would be a betrayal of the slaughtered animals. Gandhi’
s talk was a stark rebuke to the vegetarianism-for-human-health movement that
had risen to dominance during second half of the nineteenth century and an
attempt to anchor vegetarianism to its historic roots in Indian teachings on
nonviolence. Gandhi's vegetarianism and his application of
ahimsa to animals
as well as humans is generally ignored by his Western admirers or else treated
as simply an eccentricity to be treated with bemused tolerance. But "The
Moral Basis of Vegetarianism" as well as his description in his autobiography
of his conversion to ethical vegetarianism while studying law in England make
it clear that nonviolence toward animals was at the core of Gandhi's moral
vision.

21.
Animal Machines by Ruth Harrison (1920-2000). Until 1964, when Ruth
Harrison, a well-to-do English social reformer and friend of George Bernard
Shaw, published
Animal Machines, the intensive animal confinement that had
been steadily replacing traditional “free range” farming since shortly after
World War II had largely passed under the radar screen of animal protection
groups, which continued to focus on the nineteenth century issues of
vivisection, hunting, and cruelty to domestic animals. (Vegetarian groups
opposed the killing of animals for food, but had generally failed to notice the
dramatically increased cruelty in their raising.) With an Introduction by
superstar environmentalist Rachel Carson,
Animal Machines moved animal
agriculture to the top of the animal advocacy agenda and introduced the term
“factory farms.”

22. “The Rights of Animals” by Brigid Brophy (1929-1995). An article
published in the
Sunday Times of London in 1965 which argued that “The
relationship of homo sapiens to the other animals is one of unremitting
exploitation. We employ their work; we eat and wear them. We exploit them to
serve our superstitions. . . .[W]here animals are concerned humanity seems to
have switched off its morals . . .” The first straightforward call for animal
rights to reach a broad, general audience (via the
Sunday Times), the
publication of “The Rights of Animals” (an allusion to Thomas Paine’s
The
Rights of Man
) marks the beginning of the modern animal rights movement, of
which Brigid Brophy—who  through her contact with Richard Ryder and others
played a key role in inspiring the “Oxford Group” of philosophers and
theologians—should rightly be considered the founding mother. (See below,
item 23.)

23.
Animals, Men and Morals. In 1969, a small group composed primarily of
graduate and post-doctoral students in philosophy and theology at Oxford
University began getting together informally to discuss our relationship to
nonhuman animals as well as to conduct local protests and leaflettings. This
“Oxford Group,” as it came to be called, constituted the first semi-organized
beginnings of the modern animal rights movement. In frequent contact with
Brigid Brophy (See above, item 22), they included such future animal rights
luminaries as Peter Singer, Stephen Clark, Andrew Linzey, and Richard Ryder.
In 1971, three of the Oxford Group, the Canadian wife and husband Roslind
and Stanley Godlovich and Londoner John Harris edited
Animals, Men and
Morals
, a collection of essays that included contributions by Ruth Harrison
(See above, item 21), Brigid Brophy, Richard Ryder, the Godloviches, Harris,
and others. The editors made their point clear in the Introduction. “Once the
full force of moral assessment has been made explicit, there can be no rational
excuse for killing animals, be they killed for food, science, or sheer personal
indulgence.” And a Postscript by Patrick Corbett, also a member of the
Oxford Group, reinforced this point. “[O]ur conviction, for reasons we have
given, is that we require
now to extend the great principles of liberty, equality
and fraternity over the lives of animals. Let animal slavery join human slavery
in the graveyard of the past!” (emphasis in original) Richard Ryder’s essay
used the term “speciesism” to describe the prejudice that denies equal moral
consideration to animals, a word Ryder coined by analogy to “racism” and
“sexism.” Peter Singer adopted the term in Animal Liberation, and
“speciesism” quickly became one of the defining concepts of the animal rights
movement. When
Animals, Men and Morals failed to attract attention, either in
academia or among the general public, Peter Singer published a lengthy review
in
The New York Review of Books in 1973. That review did attract public
attention, on both sides of the Atlantic, and led to Singer’s
Animal Liberation
(See below, item 26).

24.
Mankind? Our Incredible War on Wildlife by Cleveland Amory (1917-
1998). A great-nephew of George Angell (see above, item 16), Cleveland
Amory was a best-selling social critic (T
he Proper Bostonians, The Last
Resorts, Who Killed Society
), television critic for TV Guide magazine, and
social commentator for the
Today television show (a job he lost when he
refused to stop criticizing vivisection on the air). Later in life, Amory authored
another best-selling trilogy
The Cat Who Came for Christmas, The Cat and
the Curmudgeon,
and The Best Cat Ever about his adventures with Polar
Bear, the abandoned cat he rescued from an alley in Manhattan. In 1967, he
founded The Fund for Animals, which for nearly four decades, until its merger
with The Humane Society of the United States in 2005, was America’s leading
anti-hunting organization. In 1974, Amory published
Mankind?, a ringing
condemnation of modern sport hunting and fur trapping, and the following year,
CBS Television broadcast a documentary based upon it entitled
The Guns of
Autumn
. Together, the book and the TV special were important contributors to
a sea-change in the American public’s attitude toward hunting. According to
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting has been in sharp, steady decline
since the mid-1970s.   

25.
Animal Liberation by Peter Singer. The animal rights movement begun in
London and Oxford by Brigid Brophy and the Oxford Group (See above, items
22 and 23) broke through as an important social justice movement in 1975
when Australian philosopher Peter Singer published
Animal Liberation. More
than any other, this is the book that brought the modern animal rights
movement into focus, and therefore, it occupies a unique niche in the history
of animal advocacy. Part journalistic expose of our abuse of animals and part
philosophical argument, its clear call for moral parity for nonhuman and human
animals, “equal consideration of interests” in Singer’s utilitarian language, and
its stark condemnations of speciesism galvanized into action a generation that
had grown up in the civil rights and second-wave feminist movements. Nearly
everyone who became involved in animal rights during the movement’s growth
spurt from 1975 until 1995 describes reading Animal Liberation as a
transformative experience, and Singer’s book has remained an icon among
animal activists of all stripes. Despite the high regard, bordering on reverence,
in which it is held, however, only a minority of animal rights activists actually
support Singer’s utilitarian rationale and some of the conclusions to which it
leads him, such as that biomedical experiments on animals to cure human
disease would be morally acceptable if there were assurance that the suffering
inflicted on the animals would be less (either in intensity or in the number of
beings affected) than the suffering alleviated by the results of the experiment.

26.
Laurel’s Kitchen by Laurel Robertson et al. Today there are hundreds of
vegetarian and vegan cookbooks, many of them excellent, and covering every
style of food from burgers and fries to macrobiotic and from ethnic to haute
cuisine. But in 1976, when Laurel Robertson and her co-authors wrote
Laurel’
s Kitchen
, practically the only vegetarian cookbook widely available was The
Ten Talents Cookbook
(That’s what it’s always called; the actual title is A
Good Cook . . . Ten Talents: Natural Foods, Vegetarian-Combining
Cookbook and Health Manual
) by Frank and Rosalie Hurd, published in 1968
and intended primarily for Seventh Day Adventists, about half of whom are
vegetarian. Although
The Ten Talents was, and in its updated edition still is,
an excellent vegetarian cookbook that made a significant contribution to
vegetarianism, its range and audience were limited. Laurel Robertson was a
member of the Blue Mountain Meditation Center in California founded and led
by Indian mystic and meditation teacher Eknath Easwaran, an adherent of
Mahatma Gandhi’s approach to ahimsa who taught vegetarianism (although not
veganism) out of compassion for animals and for spiritual health. The massive
Laurel’s Kitchen introduced vegetarian cuisine to an entire generation of
young people looking for a healthier, more natural and ecologically friendly,
and more spiritual and compassionate lifestyle.
Laurel’s Kitchen was part of a
wave of vegetarian cookbooks that arose around this time from the Eastern
spirituality movements that had grown up in California following World War
II—such as Edward Espe Brown's Tassajara trilogy:
The Tassajara
Breadbook
(1970); Tassajara Cooking (1973); and The Tassajara Recipe
Book
(1985), written at the Tassajara Zen Monastery near Carmel. These
books, of which Laurel’s Kitchen was the most comprehensive and most
widely known, were profoundly influential in moving members of the baby
boomer generation toward vegetarianism. They were an essential intermediate
step between the blatantly religious vegetarianism of
Ten Talents and the
mainstream secular vegetarianism of today, as well as between the carnivorism
of the World War II generation and the veganism that is increasingly popular
among the post-boomer generations.  

27.
The Question of Animal Awareness: Evolutionary Continuity of Mental
Experience
by Donald Griffin. For the past two decades, the most important
intellectual work for animals has not been taking place in philosophy, but in
science, specifically in the emerging field of cognitive ethology. Along with
too many others to name, scientists like Marc Bekoff (
Minding Animals, The
Emotional Lives of Animals
), Jonathan Balcombe (Pleasurable Kingdom),
Bernd Heinrich (
Mind of the Raven) Frans de Waal (Good Natured: the
Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and other Animals, Animal Social
Complexity
(with Peter Tyack), Irene Pepperberg (The Alex Studies), and Con
Slobotchikoff (“The Language of Prairie Dogs”) are demonstrating empirically
that nonhuman animals possess rich interior lives not all that different from
ours, and that they create complex languages and unique cultures that vary
within species from place to place.  The best-known of the pioneering first-
generation of scientists who created cognitive ethology is probably Konrad
Lorenz (
King Solomon’s Ring, On Aggression). But it was Griffin who first
(after Darwin; see above, item 15) recognized the implications of evolutionary
continuity for the intellectual, emotional, and linguistic lives of nonhuman
animals and established a conceptual framework for their exploration by future
generations of scientists. Originally published in 1976,
The Question of
Animal Awareness
is a seminal work that has led to the creation of a scientific
foundation for the moral structure of animal rights.

28.
To Cherish All Life: A Buddhist Case for Becoming Vegetarian by Philip
Kapleau, a Zen master trained in Japan who is best known for his classic The
Three Pillars of Zen. First appearing in 1981,
To Cherish All Life introduced
the idea of vegetarianism as an essential expression of Buddhist compassion to
the rapidly growing community of Western Buddhists. For two decades the
only Buddhist animal rights book readily available in the West,
To Cherish All
Life
has proven to be a seminal work, responsible for the growing recognition
in Western Buddhist communities that Buddhist ethics forbid the killing of
animals for food. More recently, Buddhist writers like Dr. Tony Page
(
Buddhism and Animals), Norm Phelps (The Great Compassion), and Zach
Larson (
Compassionate Action) have spread the Buddha's message of
nonviolence toward all sentient beings in the Western dharma community.
Although the statistics about animal agriculture and some of the nutritional
data are now out of date, Kapleau Roshi's ethical arguments from Buddhist
teachings on compassion remain as fresh and vital as ever.

29.
The Case for Animal Rights by Tom Regan. Published in 1983, The Case
for Animal Rights
is, along with Animal Liberation, one of the two best known,
most widely read, and most important books in the modern animal rights
movement. If it has never quite achieved the iconic status of Singer’s book, its
line of argument has nonetheless had a greater influence on the subsequent
development of animal rights theory. In fact, you cannot claim familiarity with
animal rights theory unless you have read both
Animal Liberation and The
Case for Animal Rights
. Rejecting Singer’s utilitarianism, Regan extends
Kantian natural rights philosophy—which forms the philosophical foundation
of most human rights theory—to nonhuman animals. Thus, in contrast to Singer
who, as a utilitarian, believes that we may inflict a lesser harm on some beings
to provide a greater benefit to other beings, or a great harm on a smaller
number of beings to provide a great benefit to a larger number, Regan holds
that individual nonhuman animals, like individual human beings, have a nearly
absolute entitlement not to be exploited or slaughtered for human benefit. He
bases this entitlement, not on sentience per se, but on animals being “the
subjects of a life,” by which he means that they are able to conceive of
themselves as individual, continuing beings who have interests and that they
are capable of acting intentionally in pursuit of those interests. In the original
1983 edition of
The Case for Animal Rights, Regan limited this to mentally
normal adult mammals, but in the second edition, published in 2004, he
extended it to include birds and fish, while leaving the door open for other
animals as scientists learn more about them.

30.
A Vegetarian Sourcebook: The Nutrition, Ecology, and Ethics of a
Natural Foods Diet
by Keith Akers. and 31. Compassion: The Ultimate
Ethic: An Exploration of Veganism
by Victoria Moran. In the 1980s, the
animal rights movement was still getting its bearings while absorbing new
recruits at a dizzying pace. In a world where vegan food and clothing were
much harder to find than they are now, and veganism struck most people as an
idea from the lunatic fringe, no one was entirely sure how they could go about
managing their daily lives in a way that expressed their ethical values without
making life bleak and dreary, unmanageably complicated, and lethally
deficient in nutrients. While that sounds silly from the vantage point of 2009, a
scant two decades ago it was a widespread preoccupation in animal activist
circles. The
Sourcebook and The Ultimate Ethic combined a firm ethical
grounding in ahimsa with encouragement and solid practical advice on day to
day vegan living. And in doing so, they showed the first generation of modern
animal rights activists exactly what animal rights meant for their daily lives
and how to navigate those unfamiliar waters with a minimum of disruption and
inconvenience.
A Vegetarian Sourcebook appeared in 1983. The Ultimate
Ethic
was originally serialized from 1981 to 1983 in Ahimsa, the magazine of
Jay and Freya Dinshah’s pioneering American Vegan Society; it appeared in
book form in 1985.

32.
Judaism and Vegetarianism by Richard Schwartz.  Building on numerous
passages from the Hebrew Scriptures, the Talmud, and later rabbinical
authorities, Schwartz marshals arguments for vegetarianism based on
compassion for animals, ecology, and ending human hunger. Of the three so-
called Abrahamic religions, Judaism is the most animal-friendly;
Judaism and
Vegetarianism
explains why and responds persuasively to claims that
vegetarianism is not consistent with Biblical and rabbinical teachings.
Originally published in 1982, it was the first in a series of outstanding books
on Judaism, vegetarianism, and animal rights, most notably
Vegetarian
Judaism
by Roberta Kalechofsky, which appeared in 1998.  Accessible to the
general reader,
Judaism and Vegetarianism was a transformational book that
remains a definitive work on vegetarianism and animal rights as Jewish
practice.  

33.
The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory by
Carol Adams. The oppression of humans and animals arises from the same
mindset (the belief in a moral hierarchy in which some groups have a greater
inherent worth than others), and animal rights and human rights originated
during the Axial Age as coequal applications of the same two principles of
morality: compassion based upon empathy, and the moral equality of all
sentient beings. Nevertheless, modern human liberation movements are
notoriously anthropocentric and hostile to animal rights. They do not want to
abolish moral hierarchies so much as move their constituency to the top of the
heap. Even progressives who are sincere when they claim to view the entire
human race as their constituency want to maintain a hierarchy—with humans at
the top and animals beneath them. An important exception to this frustrating
phenomenon is ecofeminism, in which theorists like Marti Kheel, Josephine
Donovan, and Carol Adams have developed a coherent moral theory that
interprets all oppression as not merely interrelated, but unified, and establishes
deep and broad correspondences between the oppression of women and the
oppression of nonhuman animals. It is no coincidence that the ecofeminist
prescription for curing unjust oppression is the Axial Age doctrine of
compassion based upon empathy. Published in 1990,
The Sexual Politics of
Meat
is the classic, groundbreaking ecofeminist deconstruction—from both
philosophical and historical points of view—of moral hierarchies and the unity
of the oppression that exploits women and animals in analogous ways
employing similar vocabularies. Especially interesting is Adams’ original and
insightful reading of
Frankenstein by Mary Godwin Shelley, daughter of early
feminist Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin and anarchist philosopher William
Godwin, and wife of vegetarian activist poet Percy Shelley.

34.
Diet for a New America by John Robbins. Heir to the Robbins ice cream
fortune, John Robbins walked away from the family business to devote his life
to promoting veganism as essential to a compassionate lifestyle, human health,
an end to world hunger, and an ecologically sustainable agriculture.
Prodigiously researched and documented,
Diet for a New America, published
in 1987, exposed the horrors of factory farms, explained the health hazards of
a meat and dairy based diet, exposed the hidden connections between animal
agriculture and world hunger, and laid bare the environmental devastation
brought about by our addiction to animal products. Although the statistics are
out of date, the arguments are comprehensive and still valid.
Diet for a New
America
was the first vegetarian advocacy book to reach a wide general
audience. It contributed to the growth of vegetarianism among young people
over the past two decades, and paved the way for other books that take a
holistic approach to vegetarianism, such as Robbins’ own
The Food
Revolution
and Will Tuttle’s remarkable The World Peace Diet.

35.
The Slaughter of Terrified Beasts: a Biblical Basis for the Humane
Treatment of Animals
by J. R. (Regina) Hyland. (1933-2007) (Originally
published in 1988,
The Slaughter of Terrified Beasts was republished in 2000,
with the addition of six essays by Hyland, as
God’s Covenant with Animals.)
Although others, most notably Rev. Dr. Andrew Linzey (See below, item 37)
had made a theological case for animal rights, Rev. Hyland (She was an
ordained Evangelical minister) demonstrated that explicit support for a vegan
diet and condemnation of animal sacrifice could be found in the Bible: in the
Hebrew Scriptures, in the life and teachings of Jesus, and in the book of
Revelation. Comfortable with Greek and Hebrew, Hyland was able to work in
the original languages and build a meticulously documented, carefully
reasoned case for animal rights based on specific Biblical passages that refer
to animals, to sacrifice, and to human diet, rather than relying entirely on
extrapolation to animals of Jewish and Christian ethical teachings that are
often thought to apply only to human beings.
God’s Covenant with Animals (to
use the current title) is a remarkable achievement of compassionate and
rigorous Biblical scholarship presented in a style accessible to the general
reader.

36.
The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery by Marjorie
Spiegel. The notion of moral equality for humans and nonhuman animals was
given powerful new expression in
The Dreaded Comparison, which for the
first time drew an explicit and amply documented parallel between present-day
animal exploitation and human slavery as it existed in the American ante-
bellum South. Published in 1988, it provided solid, fact-based support for the
idea that the exploitation of human beings and the exploitation of animals are
identical in nature and arise from the same mindset, and that the struggle
against them should be one unified movement. In a much quoted Foreword,
novelist Alice Walker summarizes Spiegel’s underlying argument this way:
“The animals of the world exist for their own reasons. They were not made for
humans any more than black people were made for whites or women were
made for men.”

37.
Animal Theology by Andrew Linzey. A former member of the Oxford
Group (see above, item 23), Dr. Linzey is an Anglican priest who founded and
directs the Ferrater-Mora Centre for Animal Ethics at Oxford University and
has almost single-handedly created the academic discipline of animal theology
with the publication of
Animal Rights: a Christian Perspective in 1976,
Christianity and the Rights of Animals in 1987, Animal Theology in 1994, and
Animal Gospel in 1998. Animal Theology is my choice for this list because it
is the most in-depth and most theologically comprehensive of Linzey’s works
on animal rights. Linzey believes that the gospel of Christ, expressed in his
teachings and the example of his life, calls upon Christians to become the
servants of the powerless and those who suffer. Since no one suffers more or
has less power than nonhuman animals, Christians have a moral obligation to
serve them. In
Animal Theology, Linzey tells us that “The uniqueness of
humanity lies in its ability to become the servant species.” Thus, while Peter
Singer, Tom Regan, and other secular philosophers grant moral equality to
animals, Linzey grants them a form of moral priority based on the fact that they
live entirely at our mercy. The more a being is in need of our mercy, the
greater is our obligation to show mercy.

38.
Animals, Property and the Law by Gary Francione. Published in 1995,
this is the book that identified the legal status of animals as property rather
than as persons to be a fundamental constituent of animal exploitation and
focused attention on legislation and litigation as essential avenues for the
attainment of animal rights. In 1990, Prof. Francione and his wife Anna
Charlton, also a law professor and legal scholar, created the Rutgers Animal
Rights Law Clinic, which incorporated animal rights into a law school
curriculum for the first time ever. The Clinic was shut down in 2000, but not
before it had put animal rights law on the national legal agenda. Thanks largely
to Francione, the Rutgers Animal Rights Law Clinic, and
Animals, Property
and the Law
, animal law is now taught in most American law schools, most
state bar associations have animal law committees, and there are legal journals
devoted to animal law. A controversial figure within the animal rights
movement because of his unrelenting attacks on groups and activists he
considers to be insufficiently pure ideologically, Francione is also a leading
animal rights theorist beyond the issue of legal status and his book
Introduction to Animal Rights: Your Child or the Dog is an excellent general
introduction to animal rights theory.

39.
Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust by
Charles Patterson. In his story “The Letter Writer,” Nobel prize winning
novelist Isaac Bashevis Singer, one of the last practitioners in the great
tradition of Yiddish writers that included I. L. Peretz and Sholem Aleichem,
wrote that “In relation to them [animals], all people are Nazis; for the animals
it is an eternal Treblinka.” Holocaust historian Charles Patterson took up this
theme and argued that not only did the Holocaust arise out of the same
mindset that creates animal exploitation, but that animal exploitation and
slaughter laid the groundwork for the Holocaust by desensitizing people to the
suffering and death of sentient beings and by providing a model (the best
exemplar of which is the Chicago stockyard) for the efficient extermination of
large populations. This direct comparison of human and animal abuse and
slaughter, rigorously documented and expressed in straightforward language,
aroused a firestorm of protest, especially when it inspired a PETA travelling
photographic exhibition entitled “The Holocaust on Your Plate” that
juxtaposed images of prisoners in concentration camps with images of
prisoners in factory farms and slaughterhouses.  In a review that appeared in
Satya magazine, I called Eternal Treblinka “a good book, a great book, and an
important book.” After rereading it recently, I stand by that judgment.

40.
Skinny Bitch by Kim Barmouin and Rory Freedman. Skinny Bitch is a fad;
in fact, with the arrival of sequels
Skinny Bitch in the Kitch and Skinny Bitch
Bun in the Oven
, it has become a mega-fad. But the size of a fad is no
indicator of its longevity. Ten years from now
Skinny Bitch may be gone and
forgotten. Or it may not. I can remember pop music critics declaring that
Fabian, Little Eva, Annette and Frankie, Elvis, and the Beatles were fads that
would soon vanish from the scene. They were right about Fabian and Little
Eva, sort of right about Annette and Frankie, and embarrassingly wrong about
Elvis and the Beatles. But whatever its fate,
Skinny Bitch has taken an
unprecedented step toward the creation of a compassionate world by making
veganism trendy among the hip and style conscious. And behind the flip,
irreverent, trendy façade is solid information on veganism for animal rights,
human health, and environmental sustainability supported by lighthearted
advice on how to enjoy life as a vegan. Whether the book itself endures like
Elvis or vanishes like Fabian,
Skinny Bitch’s key role in spreading the vegan
gospel among the young and stylish will remain a breakthrough in the
campaign for a vegan world.


References

The Akaranga Sutra. Included in Jaina Sutras translated by Hermann Georg
Jacobi. No location given, Forgotten Books, 2008. Paperback and on the
worldwide web at www.forgottenbooks.org.

Adams, Carol,
The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical
Theory
, Tenth Anniversary Edition. New York, The Continuum Publishing
Company, 2000.

Akers, Keith,
A Vegetarian Sourcebook: The Nutrition, Ecology, and Ethics
of a Natural Foods Diet
. Denver, The Vegetarian Press, 1983.

Amory, Cleveland,
Mankind? Our Incredible War on Wildlife. New York,
Harper and Row, 1974.

Balcombe, Jonathan,
Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of
Feeling Good
. London, Macmillan, 2006.

Barmouin, Kim and Rory Freedman,
Skinny Bitch. Philadelphia, Running Press,
2005.

Bekoff, Marc,
Minding Animals: Awareness, Emotions, and Heart. Oxford,
Oxford University Press, 2002.

----------------,
The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores
Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy—and Why They Matter
. Novato,
California, New World Library, 2007.

Bentham, Jeremy,
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and
Legislation
. New York, Hafner Press, 1948. (Originally published 1789)

Brophy, Brigid, “The Rights of Animals,” reprinted in
Animal Rights: an
Historical Perspective
, Andrew Linzey and Paul Barry Clarke, editors. New
York, Columbia University Press, 2004.

Brotherton, Martha,
A New System of Vegetable Cookery. See Norm Phelps,
The Longest Struggle, pg. 149.

Brown, Edward Espe,
Tassajara Cooking, Boulder, Colorado, USA,
Shambhala Publications, 1986.

-------------------------,
The Tassajara Bread Book. Boulder, Colorado, USA,
Shambhala Publications, 1995.

-------------------------,
The Tassajara Recipe Book. Boulder, Colorado, USA,
Shambhala Publications, 1985.

Chatral Rinpoche,
Compassionate Action edited, introduced, and annotated by
Zach Larson. Ithaca, New York, USA, Snow Lion, 2007.

Cobbe, Frances Power. See Norm Phelps,
The Longest Struggle, pp. 129-144
and Lori Williamson,
Power and Protest: Frances Power Cobbe and
Victorian Society
, London, Rivers Oram Press, 2005.

Darwin, Charles,
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and in Animals
reproduced in
From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin’s Four Great Books.
New York, W. W. Norton, 2005.

Francione, Gary L.,
Animals, Property and the Law. Philadelphia, Temple
University Press, 1995.

----------------------,
Introduction to Animal Rights: Your Child or the Dog.
Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 2000.

Gandhi, Mohandas K., “The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism.”  On the website
of the International Vegetarian Union at www.ivu.org/news/evu/other/gandhi2.
html. Viewed on April 18, 2006.

---------------------------,
Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with
Truth
translated by Mahadev Desai. Mineola, New York, Dover Publications,
1983. (Originally published in serial form from 1925 to 1928.) Gandhi
describes his conversion to moral vegetarianism in Chapter XIV, "My
Choice.")

Gompertz, Lewis,
Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes.
Fontwell, Sussex, Centaur Press, 1992 (Originally published, 1824).

Griffin, Donald R.,
The Question of Animal Awareness: Evolutionary
Continuity of Mental Experience
. Los Altos, California, USA, William
Kaufmann, Inc., 1981.

Harrison, Ruth,
Animal Factories: the New Factory Farming Industry. New
York, Ballantine Books, 1966.

The Hebrew Scriptures. The New American Standard Bible. A reliable
Protestant translation which I highly recommend. Other reliable versions
include (but are not limited to)
Tanakh: the Holy Scriptures (Jewish), and The
New American Bible
(Catholic). The King James Version is much better than
it is often reputed to be, but it can be misleading if you aren’t familiar with
Elizabethan English. (“Meat,” for example, meant any solid food, not just
animal flesh, and “keeper,” as in “my brother’s keeper,” meant “jailer,” not
“protector.”)  
The New Revised Standard Version, which is essentially a
translation of the King James into modern English, is also quite reliable. Avoid
the
New International Version (NIV), which has become the best-selling Bible
in the English-speaking world, because it sometimes reflects the biases of its
fundamentalist Protestant translators.

Heinrich, Bernd,
Mind of the Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-
Birds
. New York, HarperCollins, 1999.

Hurd, Frank, and Rosalie Hurd,
A Good Cook . . . Ten Talents: Natural
Foods, Vegetarian-Combining Cookbook and Health Manual
. Joplin,
Missouri, USA, College Press, 1985. (Usually referred to as
The Ten Talents
Cookbook.
)

Hyland, J. R.,
God’s Covenant with Animals: A Biblical Basis for the Humane
Treatment of All Creatures
. New York, Lantern Books, 2000. (Originally
published in 1988 as
The Slaughter of Terrified Beasts.)

Kalechofsky, Roberta,
Vegetarian Judaism: A Guide for Everyone.
Marblehead, Massachusetts, USA, Micah Publications, 1998.

Kapleau, Philip,
To Cherish All Life: A Buddhist Case for Becoming
Vegetarian
, Second Edition. Rochester, New York, USA, The Zen Center,
1986.

The Lankavatara Sutra: a Mahayana Text translated by D. T. Suzuki. New
Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

Linzey, Andrew,
Animal Theology. Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press,
1995.

-------------------,
Christianity and the Rights of Animals. New York, Crossroad
Publishing Co., 1991.

-------------------,
Animal Gospel. Louisville, Kentucky, USA, Westminster John
Knox Press, 2000.

Moran, Victoria,
Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic: An Exploration of
Veganism
, fourth edition. Malaga, NJ, The American Vegan Society, 1997.

Ovid,
Metamorphoses, translated by Mary N. Innes. London, Penguin Books,
1955.

Page, Tony,
Buddhism and Animals: A Buddhist Vision of Humanity's
Rightful Relationship with the Animal Kingdom.
London, UKAVIS
Publications (United Kingdom Anti-Vivisection Information Service), 1999.

Patterson, Charles,
Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the
Holocaust
. New York, Lantern Books, 2002.

Pepperberg, Irene,
The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities
of Gray Parrots
. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Harvard University Press,
2002.

Phelps, Norm,
The Longest Struggle: Animal Advocacy from Pythagoras to
PETA
. New York, Lantern Books, 2007.

----------------.
The Great Compassion: Buddhism and Animal Rights. New
York, Lantern Books, 2004.

Plutarch,
Moralia, Volume 12, translated by Harold Cherniss and William C.
Helmsbold. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1957.

Porphyry.
On Abstinence from Animal Food. On the ThriceHoly.Net website
at http://thriceholy.net/Texts/Porphyry.html.  Viewed on October 15, 2005.

Primatt, Humphrey,
The Duty of Mercy. Fontwell, West Sussex, Centaur
Press, 1992. (Originally published 1776.)

Regan, Tom,
The Case for Animal Rights, second edition. Berkeley, the
University of California Press, 2004.

Robbins, John,
Diet for a New America: How Your Food Choices Affect Your
Health, Happiness, and the Future of Life on Earth
. Walpole, New
Hampshire, USA, Stillpoint Publishing, 1987.

-----------------,
The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your
Life and the World.
Berkeley, Conari Press, 2001.

Salt, Henry S.,
Animals’ Rights Considered in Relation to Social Progress.
Clark’s Summit, Pennsylvania, Society for Animal Rights, Incorporated, 1980.
(Originally published 1892)

Salten, Felix,
Bambi: a Life in the Woods. New York, Simon and Schuster,
1988. (Originally published in German in 1923 and in English by Simon and
Schuster in 1928)

Schwartz, Richard, Ph.D.,
Judaism and Vegetarianism, new and revised
edition. New York, Lantern Books, 2001.

Sewell, Anna,
Black Beauty. New York, Scholastic Paperbacks, 2003.
(Originally published 1877.)

Shelley, Percy, “A Vindication of Natural Diet,” on the website of VegInfo,
http://www.veginfo.dk/eng/texts/shelley1.html. Viewed on October 30, 2005.

Singer, Peter,
Animal Liberation. New York, The New York Review of
Books, 1975.

Slobodchikoff, Con, “The Language of  Prairie Dogs” in
Kinship with the
Animals
, Michael Tobias and Kate Solisti-Mattelon, editors. Hillsboro,
Oregon, USA, Beyond Words Publishing, 1998.

Spiegel, Marjorie,
The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery,
revised and expanded edition.  New York, Mirror Books, 1996.

Tirukural translated by Kavi Yogi Shuddananda Bharatiar. On the worldwide
web at www.tamilnation.org/literature/kural/kuralE1.htm.  Viewed on
September 24, 2005.

Tryon, Thomas,
The Countryman’s Companion. The passage cited here is
quoted in Richard Ryder,
Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes toward
Speciesism
. Oxford, Berg, 2000, pg. 48. I have modernized the spelling and
punctuation.

Tuttle, Will,
The World Peace Diet: Eating for Spiritual Health and Social
Harmony
. New York, Lantern Books, 2005.

de Waal, Frans,
Good Natured: the Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans
and Other Animals.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Harvard University
Press, 1997.

de Waal, Frans and Peter Tyack,
Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence,
Culture, and Individualized Societies
. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA,
Harvard University Press, 2003.